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Urban Water Resource Crisis Promotes the Future Prospect of Seawater Desalination Industry
Water pollution, groundwater overexploitation and ecological water use have been occupied by a large number. In view of the current situation, vigorous development of unconventional water sources such as seawater desalination is an effective way to open source increment and solve the root causes of water shortage, which brings new opportunities for the development of seawater desalination in China.
Seawater is an important component of marine resources, and also an important supplement and reserve source of freshwater resources. Through desalination technology, high quality desalinated water can be produced by removing salt from seawater, which can meet the needs of residents'living and industrial production.
It is particularly urgent for water resources to develop desalination
There are two main problems in China's "water": one is the shortage of water resources, the other is the serious water pollution. Data show that China is a country with severe drought and water shortage. Per capita freshwater resources are only 1/4 of the world average, ranking 110 in the world, and one of the countries with the poorest per capita water resources in the world. Available water resources per capita are only 900 cubic meters, and their distribution is extremely uneven. At the end of the 20th century, more than 400 cities in more than 600 cities in China had water shortage problems, of which 110 were seriously water-deficient cities, and the total amount of water shortage in cities in China was 6 billion cubic meters.
In view of the current situation of water pollution, groundwater overexploitation and ecological water being massively crowded out, vigorous development of unconventional water sources such as seawater desalination is an effective way to increase sources and solve the root causes of water shortage. Relevant experts pointed out that seawater desalination is an important measure to solve the shortage of fresh water in coastal areas and North China and to achieve sustainable development. Especially, the implementation of the national Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development strategy, it is particularly urgent to speed up the seawater desalination project. By entering municipal water supply network and industrial point-to-point desalination water supply, the optimal allocation and sustainable utilization of water resources can be realized, and the basic guarantee role of multi-source water supply system with desalination water participation in the construction of ecological civilization can be brought into full play.
The National Seawater Utilization Report of 2014 issued by the State Oceanic Administration recently shows that the overall scale of China's seawater desalination projects is increasing. By the end of 2014, 112 desalination projects have been completed in China, with a daily production of 926,900 tons of water and a maximum of 200,000 tons of seawater desalination projects. China's seawater desalination mainly uses reverse osmosis and low temperature multi-effect distillation desalination technology. The scale of seawater direct-current cooling and seawater circulating cooling applications is growing. The annual use of seawater as cooling water amounts to 10.9 billion tons, an increase of 12.2% over 2013.
Market Forecast of Seawater Desalination in China
According to the "China Seawater Desalination Market Forecast and Investment Strategic Report (2015 Edition)" published by Limu Information Consulting, more than 70 sets of desalination units have been built in China by the end of 2010, with a capacity of 600,000 cubic meters per day for desalination aquatic products, and 5 units under construction with a capacity of 260,000 cubic meters per day for desalination aquatic products. Among them, the reverse osmosis method accounts for 66% of the total production capacity, the low temperature multi-effect distillation method accounts for 33%, and other desalination methods account for 1%. At present, the investment of reverse osmosis desalination is 6000-8000 yuan/cubic meter, and the comprehensive water production cost is 5-6 yuan/cubic meter. It is planned that by 2015, China's desalination capacity will reach more than 2.2 million cubic meters per day, the contribution rate of desalination to solving the new water supply on islands will reach more than 50%, and the contribution rate to the new industrial water supply in coastal water-deficient areas will reach more than 15%. The desalination capacity of brackish water and brackish water will be greatly improved.
At present, the total scale of China's desalination project is 1% of the world's, and more than half of the constructed projects are under the leadership of foreign companies, relatively lack of practical experience in large-scale desalination project construction. In March 2013, the state announced the list of pilot units for the development of seawater desalination industry. It is expected that in the next two years, China's seawater desalination market will mainly focus on pilot project construction, gradually strengthen the capacity of independent construction and accumulate engineering experience.
Generally speaking, there are still some gaps between China and foreign countries in seawater desalination, but there is already a technological basis for large-scale seawater desalination. Once there is a need in the future, China will be able to cope with the urban water crisis and will become an important supplement to China's water resources. Although the current desalination market in China is limited by regional and demand markets, most of it is industrial water in coastal developed cities. However, with the rise of tap water price and the application of the latest desalination technology, China's desalination industry will have greater breakthroughs.
Figures show that the international desalination market will have nearly $70 billion in business opportunities in the next 20 years. "There will be billions of dollars in China's market in the future," said Leon Averbuki, chairman of the Technical Committee of the International Desalination Association. "In the past, desalination industry focused on the Middle East, Europe and Spain, but now desalination enterprises in Britain, France, Singapore, Denmark, Japan and other countries have come to China to engage in technology, investment and construction activities," he said.